Book Treatments

European Magazine & London Review

Full Treatment

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Treatment Report

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PCS#: Beth’s BLIII Full Treatment

ACCESSION OR CALL#: Personal Collection

Author: Philological Society of London

Title: The European Magazine and London Review Vol. III for 1783

Imprint: Published Feb. 1, 1783 by J. Fielding, Pater Noster Row, London


The quarter style, rigid board, tight joint binding is covered in brown leather and marbled paper. The paper is marbled with green, red, blue, black, and cream colors. The leather is finished on the spine with a gold-tooled title and gold horizontal lines dividing the spine into panels. The boards are attached to the textblock with five sewing supports laced through the boards.

The heavily rounded and hammer backed textblock is sewn with an abbreviated, skip-station sewing pattern on five twisted cord recessed sewing supports and two kettles. The spine of the text is covered with two paper linings, one continuous and one patch lining. Both are adhered with animal glue. The edges of the textblock are finished with a decorative brown color. The sewn on, single folio endleaves are similar to the text and are tipped to a single leaf, which is tipped to the first section. There is an ex libris bookplate on the front pastedown.

The textblock is comprised of double folios of cream colored, slightly textured, medium weight, handmade, laid paper, printed with black printer’s ink. There are three fold out maps inserted between pages 112 and 113, 176 and 177, and 352 and 353. There are three engravings present; the frontispiece on the verso of the first flyleaf, the title page on the recto of the second flyleaf, and a wood engraving on page 406. The name [W] Baldwin is written in black manuscript ink on the front pastedown, first and second flyleaves, and the front cover. There is a cataloguer’s annotation written in graphite on the first flyleaf.

Condition Summary:

The binding is in poor condition overall with both the front board and spine covering detached. The sewing is broken at the front of the textblock, leaving the front endleaves and first three sections detached. The sewing support at the first sewing station is completely lost. The textblock opens preferentially near the middle of the book, indicating a weakness in consolidation. The leather and paper covering are severely abraded especially at the corners, which are soft and distorted. The leather is scarred and torn, and the boards are distorted at the foredge. The detached spine is extremely fragile and is currently faced with tissue paper for protection. The text paper is in good condition with only minor soiling, foxing, discoloration at the edges of the leaves, and slight embrittlement overall. The endleaves are discolored from burn-through from the leather turn-ins. All media appear to be stable and in good condition.

Treatment Objective:

The goal of the treatment is to explore invasive special collections treatment options for bound material.

Treatment Proposal:

  1. Clean spine.
  2. Dis-bind to preferential opening at page 256.
  3. Surface clean dis-bound folios.
  4. Perform washing, bleaching, and sizing according to table below.
  5. Guard sections 3 and 4 and outer folio of 17.
  6. Mend dis-bound fold-out maps (1 & 2) as needed.
  7. Re-sew dis-bound portion of textblock using original sewing holes and pattern on cords with a two twist of linen seaming twine.
  8. Hitch two textblock halves together.
  9. Put textblock into round and consolidate with 60:40 wheat starch paste / MC.
  10. Line spine with continuous long-fiber paper lining with 60:40 WSP/MC.
  11. Adhere comb textile lining (overhanging to front board only) with airplane linen and Lascaux.
  12. Adhere Western handmade paper patch linings as needed.
  13. Reattach front board with overhanging lining under lifted leather covering.
  14. Reinforce inner hinges with toned long-fiber paper.
  15. Reattach spine cover with heavy weight long-fiber paper V-hinges.
  16. Overlay outer joints with toned long-fiber paper.
  17. Reinforce corners with WSP.
  18. Fill losses in marble paper covering with toned long-fiber paper.
  19. Touch-up outer joints and boards with colored pencils.
  20. Mend third fold-out map in-situ.

Washing, Bleaching, and Sizing Table

Section Wash Bleach Size
1 Y NaB Gel
2 Y NaB Gel
5 Y NaB N
6 Y NaB N
7 Y NaB N
8 Y NaB N
9 Y H2O2 Gel
10 Y H2O2 MC
11 Y H2O2 N
12 Y H2O2 N
13 Y Sun Gel
14 Y Sun MC
15 Y Sun N
16 Y Sun N
17-20 Y N Gel
21-24 Y N MC
25-28 Y N N
29-32 N N N
Fold-out 1 Y local local
Fold-out 2 Y local local

Treatment Performed:

  1. Surface cleaned all leaves with hake brush, soot sponge, and vinyl erasers, while diagramming collation and sewing pattern. (1.5 hrs.)
  2. Mechanically removed paper spine linings with micro-spatula. Applied Methylcellulose [MC] (2.5% w/v), left 15min., and cleaned spine with micro-spatula. Repeated twice. (1.5 hrs.)
  3. Disbound textblock to page 256. 32 sections were disbound. (2hrs.)
  4. Solubility Testing: drop of de-ionized water was applied to each medium until offset or movement observed. (30 min.)
  5. Washed sections 1-28 as single folios, except section 18, which was washed as a full section, folded. All folios were washed in two consecutive calcified de-ionized water baths to a pH of 8 and air dried on Hollytex. Endleaves and two foldout maps containing intaglio inks were washed as above and dried between felts with light weight. The folios were wet out with 50:50 EtOH/water before immersing in bath. (3.5 hrs)
  6. Gathered dry folios into sections, jogged to head and foredge in working boards, and left under weight. (1 hr)
  7. Bleached sections 1-8 with 0.25% solution of Sodium Borohydride, after a five minute bath and followed by two consecutive five minute baths of re-calcified de-ionized water. Air dried on Hollytex. Times of bleach exposure follow: section 1, inner folio: 3 min; section 1, outer folio: 2 min; section 2, inner folio: 1 min; section 2, outer folio: 5 min; sections 3 and 4: 3 min; sections 5, 6, 7, and 8: 2.5 min. (1.5 hrs)
  8. Bleached sections 9 -12 with a 0.5% solution of Hydrogen Peroxide, following and followed by a five minute bath of re-calcified de-ionized water. Air dried on Hollytex. Times of bleach exposure follow: section 9, inner folio: 6 min; section 9, outer folio, and sections 10 and 11: 10 min; section 12: 20 min. (1.5 hrs)
  9. Aqueous light bleaching of sections 13-16 in calcified de-ionized bath to pH 8, followed by a five minute bath of re-calcified de-ionized water. Times of exposure follow: sections 13 and 14: 7 min, sections 15 and 16: 14min. Air dried on Hollytex. (2 hrs)
  10. Gathered dry folios into sections, jogged to head and foredge in working boards, and left under weight. (1 hr)
  11. Sized sections 1, 2, 9, 13, and 17-20 in 0.5% gelatin solution in bath for 15 minutes. Air dried on Hollytex. (2 hrs)
  12. Sized sections 3 and 4 in 0.25% Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose solution (NaCMC, Cellofas B-3500) in bath for 10 minutes. Air dried on Hollytex. (30 min)
  13. Sizing in Methylcellulose according to chart below. Air dried on Hollytex. (1 hr)

    Section Application
    10, 14, 21: immersed in 1% MC 4C
    22: brush applied 0.5% MC 15C
    23: brush applied 1:1 0.5% MC 15 C / 1% MC 4C
    24: brush applied 2% MC 15LV
  14. Gathered dry folios into sections, jogged to head and foredge in working boards, and left under weight. (1 hr)
  15. Blotter washed and locally reduced stain of foldout theater plan. Sprayed out with 50:50 EtOH/water. Washed on wet blotter. Sprayed with pH8 Ammonium Hydroxide solution. Applied pH 11 Ammonium Hydroxide solution locally with soft brush and blotted with chromatography paper. Let dry between felts with light weight. (2 hrs)
  16. Complex guarding of sections 3 and 4, and simple guarding of outer folio of section 17 with Usumino thinnest tissue (HM-54, Hiromi). (2hrs)
  17. Mended foldout map of Naples with lens tissue and 2.5:1 wheat starch paste. Weighted locally until dry. (30 min)
  18. Re-tipped foldout theater plan to page 112 with 2.5:1 wheat starch paste. Weighted locally until dry. (15 min).
  19. Re-sewed disbound portion of textblock with waxed 100% linen thread using original 7-on sewing pattern on all five raised cord supports and reinforced kettles using the original sewing holes. The first three sections were sewn all-along to establish consolidation. (7 hrs)
  20. Jogged and positioned resewn portion of textblock onto intact portion. Pushed into an appropriate round and left under heavy weight. (1 hr)
  21. Consolidated both halves of textblock as one unit with 60:40 WSP/MC and adjusted rounding of resewn portion. (15 min)
  22. Softened and aligned sewing supports of both halves around each other and pasted into position with 60:40 WSP/MC. (30 min)
  23. Lined entire textblock spine with a single long-fiber paper reversibility lining of 100% Kozo machine-made tissue and 60:40 WSP/MC. (15 min)
  24. Once lining nearly dry, placed textblock into backing boards in lying press and backed resewn half to match intact half with a backing stick. (30 min)
  25. Hitched two halves of textblock together with a waxed two-twist of 100% linen seaming thread in two separate stations of a two-hole link stitch pattern extending four sections above and below the break. (2 hrs)
  26. Adhered two long-fiber paper spine linings with 60:40 WSP/MC; the first approximately 1 cm wide, the second approximately 3 cm wide. The linings were centered over the break in the textblock to discourage a preferential opening in that spot. (30 min)
  27. Adhered an overhanging slotted textile lining with 100% fine weave airplane linen and 3:1 Lascaux/WSP. The lining overhangs overall on the front of the textblock, while the back overhangs only above and below the sewing supports. (1.5 hrs)
  28. Adhered spine panel linings with handmade Western paper (Barrett) and 3:1 Lascaux/WSP. (30 min)
  29. Reinforced attachment of first section with pamphlet stitch through textile lining. (1 hour)
  30. Trimmed overhanging textile lining, cut slits at head and tail, and tucked tabs under board to be adhered under lifted pastedown. (15 min)
  31. Lifted front and back pastedowns under turn-ins at head and tail. (30 min)
  32. Lifted leather on front and back boards all along spine edges. (45 min)
  33. Adhered overhanging textile lining under lifted leather on boards with 3:1 Lascaux/WSP - all along spine edge on front board and at head and tail only on back board. (1 hr)
  34. Cut and lifted covering materials at board edges in preparation for rebacking. Fragments saved for later reattachment. (30 min)
  35. Cut thin calf spine repair piece and dyed it with Selloset dyes - 2:1 Brown/Red. (1.75 hr)
  36. Trimmed, marked, and pared leather spine piece and fit it to the book. (1.5 hr)
  37. Wrapped textblock with waste paper to protect it from moisture during the covering process and covered the spine with the leather repair piece using 50:50 Lacaux/WSP. Left wrapped in felt under weight until dry. (3 hr)
  38. Systematically opened covers and textblock to avoid splitting the leather and/or textblock. (15 min)
  39. Readhered lifted fragments from board edges with Lascaux. (1 hr)
  40. Trimmed textile lining at turn-ins. (15 min)
  41. Reinforced corners and adhered lifting paper covering at board edges with WSP. (1 hr)
  42. Readhered all remaining lifted areas with Lascaux. (30 min)
  43. Locally humidified creases in fold-out map with de-ionized water on a soft brush, weighting locally until dry. Once all severe creases were relaxed, humidified overall in Goretex chamber in-situ for 1 hour. Dried between blotters and boards under heavy weight for two days. (1.5 hr)
  44. Mended back flyleaf with toned 100% Kozo tissue and WSP, using a Hollytex barrier to prevent adhesion through the areas of loss. Weighted locally until dry. (15 min)
  45. Applied heat to the spine with a tacking iron through chromatography paper in order to reactivate the Lascaux under the new covering material to improve its adhesion to the textblock. Allowed to cool under light weight. (30 min)
  46. Cut original spine piece into panels along tooled lines in preparation for re-mounting. Thinned suede side and pared edges. Adhered spine label panel to spine with a very dry, full-thickness WSP around the edges and Lascaux on the entire panel and spine. Palmed down and allowed to dry under light scuba weight. It was decided that the remaining panels are too fragmented to be re-mounted onto the spine, so they will be mounted onto a plaquette. (1.5 hr)
  47. Gold-tooled the volume number "3" with gold foil onto the spine to replace the lost information from the original spine. (30 min)
  48. Housed in custom 4-flap wrapper. (2 hr)

Total Treatment Time: 58.75 Hours

Materials Used:

100% machine-made Kozo tissue, Hiromi, 2004

Usumino Thinnest, Hiromi HM-54, 2006

Green's lens tissue, Talas 2004

UICB Barrett handmade Western paper, Talas, 2004

20 pt folder stock

Thin calf skin

100% linen seaming thread

100% Linen cord

Airplane linen, medium weave, Test Fabrics, Inc.

Precipitated wheat starch paste,2.5:1,cooked 20 minutes in de-ionized H2O, Colophon

Precipitated wheat starch paste, 4:1, cooked 20 minutes in de-ionized H2O, Colophon

Methylcellulose, 4000 centipoises, 2.5% (w/v) diluted in hot then cold de-ionized water, Fisher Scientific

Lascaux 498 HV, Talas

Ethanol, 200 Proof, absolute anhydrous, ACS/USP grade, Pharmco-AAPER

Calcium hydroxide, Fisher Scientific 1998

Sodium Borohydride, 0.25%

Hydrogen Peroxide, 0.5% diluted in de-ionized water

Ammonium Hydroxide, Fisher

Purified grade Gelatin, 0.5% cooked to 130 degrees F in de-ionized water, Fisher

Methylcellulose, 4C, 1% (w/v) diluted in hot then cold de-ionized H2O, Dow Chem, 2008

Methylcellulose, 15C, 0.5% (w/v) diluted in hot then cold de-i H2O, Dow Chem, 2008

Methylcellulose, 15LV, 2% (w/v) diluted in hot then cold de-i H2O, Dow Chem, 2008

Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose 0.25%, Cellofas B-3500, Conservation Materials, Ltd.

Selloset dye, red and brown, Leather Conservation Center

Gold foil


Cotton balls

Blotter paper

Mylar, Talas